Modern Periodic Table of Elements 2022

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The Periodic Table is a model that groups all known chemical elements and their properties. They are arranged to increase the atomic number (number of protons). The new Periodic Table has 118 chemical elements (92 natural and 26 artificial).

Each square specifies the name of the chemical element, its symbol, and its atomic number. Learn how the elements are presented and the way they are organized into periods and families.

Classification of elements

Chemical elements are classified into metals, non-metals, and noble gases.

Metals: Elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity. They are solids at STP (except for mercury).

Non-metals: Elements that are poor conductors of electric current and heat. They assume any physical state at room temperature.

Noble gases: low reactivity elements.

Elements are also classified as representative (electronic distribution ends in s or p) or transition (internal transition: distribution ends in d; external transition: ends in f).

Elements are located in the periodic table by their group and period.

Each row (horizontal) of the periodic table represents a period.

Periods are seven in number and indicate the number of levels the element has, that is, the number of electron shells in the electron distribution.

The groups are columns (vertical) that present chemical elements that share properties.

Modern Periodic table of elements

Group corresponds to a vertical row and period to a horizontal row in the table.

Structure of the Periodic Table

The so-called periods are the numbered horizontal lines, which present elements with the same number of electronic layers, totaling seven periods.

  • 1st Period: 2 elements
  • 2nd Period: 8 elements
  • 3rd Period: 8 elements
  • 4th Period: 18 elements
  • 5th Period: 18 elements
  • 6th Period: 32 elements
  • 7th Period: 32 elements

With the arrangement of the periods in the table, some horizontal lines would become very long. So it is common to represent the lanthanide and actinide series separately from the others.

The groups, formerly called families, are the vertical columns, where each element has the same number of electrons in the outermost shell, that is in the valence shell.

Altogether, 18 groups form the Periodic Table. Many elements in these groups are related according to their chemical properties.

  • Group 1 (Family 1A): Alkali Metals (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium).
  • Group 2 (Family 2A): Alkaline earth metals (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium).
  • Group 13 (Family 3A): Boron family (boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, and nihonium).
  • Group 14 (Family 4A): Carbon Family (carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, and flerovium).
  • Group 15 (Family 5A): Nitrogen family (nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and musk).
  • Group 16 (Family 6A): Chalcogens (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, polonium, livermorium).
  • Group 17 (Family 7A): Halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, and tenessine).
  • Group 18 (Family 8A): Noble Gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon and oganesson).

Transition elements, also called transition metals, occupy the central part of the table:

  • Group 11 (Family 1B): copper, silver, gold, and roentgen.
  • Group 12 (Family 2B): zinc, cadmium, mercury, and copernicium.
  • Group 3 (Family 3B): scandium, yttrium, lanthanide* and actinide series**.
  • Group 4 (Family 4B): titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and rutherfordium.
  • Group 5 (Family 5B): vanadium, niobium, tantalum and dubnium.
  • Group 6 (Family 6B): chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and seaborgium.
  • Group 7 (Family 7B): manganese, technetium, rhenium and bohrium.
  • Group 8 (Family 8B): iron, ruthenium, osmium, and hassium.
  • Group 9 (Family 8B): cobalt, rhodium, iridium and meitnerium.
  • Group 10 (Family 8B): nickel, palladium, platinum, darmstadtium.

*The lanthanide series consists of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium.

**The actinide series contains the following elements: actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and laurence.

By determination of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups are organized in numbers from 1 to 18. However, it is still common to find families described by letters and numbers, as shown above.

A significant difference that the new system presented by IUPAC generated is that family 8B corresponds to groups 8, 9, and 10 in the periodic table. It is also worth remembering that the element hydrogen is positioned above the alkali metals only because of its electronic configuration, but it does not belong to this group.

History of Periodic Table

The fundamental purpose of creating a table was to facilitate classifying, organizing, and grouping elements according to their properties.

Until arriving at the current model, many scientists created tables that could demonstrate a way to organize the chemical elements.

The complete Periodic Table was created by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907), in 1869, based on the atomic mass of the elements.

Mendeleev arranged groups of elements according to similar properties and left empty spaces for elements he believed were yet to be discovered.

The modern Periodic Table of elements was organized by Henry Moseley, in 1913, in order of the atomic number of the chemical elements, reorganizing the table proposed by Mendeleev.

Learn more about Atomic Number

Glenn Seaborg discovered the transuranic elements (numbers 94 to 102) and, in 1944, proposed the reconfiguration of the Periodic Table, placing the actinide series below the lanthanide series.

William Ramsay discovered the elements neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Helium and radon elements are included in the noble gas family in the Periodic Table.

In 2019, the periodic table turned 150, and United Nations and UNESCO resolution was created to make it the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements to recognize one of the most influential and important scientific creations.

Curiosities of the Periodic Table

  • The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) dedicated to the studies and advances of Chemistry. Worldwide, the standard established for the Periodic Table is recommended by the Organization.
  • Over 350 years ago, the first chemical element isolated in the laboratory was phosphorus by the German alchemist Henning Brand.
  • The Element Plutonium was discovered in the 1940s by the American chemist Glenn Seaborg. He discovered all the transuranic elements and won the Nobel Prize in 1951. Element 106 was named Seaborgium in his honor.
  • In 2016, new chemical elements of the table were made official: Tennessine, Nihonium, Moscovium, and Oganesson.
  • The newly synthesized chemical elements are called superheavy because they contain a high number of protons in their nuclei, which is much higher than the chemical elements found in nature.

Did you know?

After confirmation by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, four new synthetic elements are now part of the periodic table. They are: ununtrium (Uut, or element 113), unumpentium (Uup, or element 115), ununseptium (Uus, or element 117) and ununoctium (Uuo, or element 118). They are highly radioactive and unstable, which makes their study difficult.

Gwenivere

Bachelor in Industrial Chemistry from Covenant University with experience in academic research in the area of ​​environmental ecology. M.Sc. (Petrochemical and Hydrocarbon Chemistry),(Manchester), Ph.D. (Chemistry) - Industrial/Applied( Manchester).